Weight Loss Surgery – Surgical Treatment of Obesity
Obesity is recognized as an epidemic and as a major public health threat around the globe in countries with developed market economies, like the United States and Canada. It is characterized by an accumulation of excess body fat and with a BMI of over 30 kg/m2 (30-35 mild obesity class I, 35–40 moderate obesity class II, and over 40 severe/extreme/morbid obesity class III). Body Mass Index (BMI) is used to assess the level of obesity and cardiometabolic risk.
The obesity epidemic can be linked to genetic predisposition and modern environment:
- Inheritance the Tendency to be Obese
- Food Composition
- No Exercise or Vigorous Activity
- Psycho-social Issues
- Metabolic Disorders
- Stress Level
- Not Enough Sleep
- Weight-Gaining Drugs
Obesity is considered a health problem that may result in reduced quality of life, adverse health risks, and premature mortality.
The traditional view of maintaining a “healthy lifestyle” overlooks how the body regulates energy. The Set-Point Theory states that the body adapts to progressive increased level of fat and weight and recognizes it as a new setpoint. The body sets this new elevated weight as a new normal and resists to any diet restriction by the following mechanism:
Body Fat Setpoint is influenced by:
- Genetic Susceptibility
- Environmental Exposure
- Developmental History
An obese body sees calorie reduction diet (Calories In < Calories Out) as a starvation threat and tries to defend itself. Throughout most of human history, calories were relatively scarce and hard to get, and physical activity was unavoidable. We have no defense against overeating.
Weight loss surgery changes set point and shift your neuro-hormonal axis to a lower weight. So, patient’s body will be an overfed state and it will not be as hungry and your metabolism goes higher. This will give you a second chance in life!
Fighting obesity with diet and exercise alone is not an effective long-term solution. A dieter’s body may encourage fat regain after initial weight loss by complex mechanisms. Bariatrics is shown to be the most effective long-term treatment for obesity. Non-surgical dietary weight loss options are often not long-term.
Bariatric Surgery Options
Bariatric treatment for obesity is performed to restrict food intake and/or to reduce nutrient absorption (shorten part of the digestive tract). The surgery is normally performed laparoscopically using cameras and surgical instruments through small incisions (about five) in the abdomen.
- Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding (LAGB) – Gastric Band (Lap-band) was once a popular procedure to limit the food intake by adding a band to the top of the stomach. It is an outdated procedure and is causing a lot of complications.
- Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy (LSG) – Gastric sleeve is a restrictive procedure that part of the stomach is removed (sleeve resection of the stomach). The patients feel less hunger and feel full faster.
- Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy (VSG) can be done with a single incision through belly button rather than 4 – 5 small incisions in a conventional LSG – Single Incision Laparoscopic Sleeve (SILS).
- Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGBP) – Gastric bypass surgery combines the restrictive and malabsorptive components to achieve weight loss.
- Laparoscopic Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch (BPD/DS) – Duodenal switch combines stomach resection similar to gastric sleeve and malabsorption to achieve weight loss.
- Intragastric Balloon (IGB) – Gastric Balloon or tummy balloon is a non-surgical procedure to jump-start weight loss. It is considered a restrictive procedure as the balloon occupies almost one-third of the stomach.
Hundreds of Canadian patients have opted to start their journey to a new life with Mexico Bariatric Center (MBC) instead of wait (2 to 15 years) or pay the high cost of surgery in America or Canada. There is no wait and they pay a fraction of the price with reliable medical services and top-notch surgeons. Patients from Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, Florida, Chicago, New Your, Washington, Oklahoma, Idaho, California, South Carolina, Alberta, British Columbia, Toronto, Montreal, Saskatchewan and Nova Scotia opt for surgical treatment of obesity and give themselves a second chance in life.
Revisional bariatric surgery refers to a surgery that follows a previous weight loss procedure. Sometimes a bariatric procedure may not be successful or may have complications and needs to be revised. Here is a list of possible revision surgeries:
- JIB -> Reversal or GBP
- VBG -> GBP
- AGB -> GBP, VSG, DS
- BPD -> Reversal, shortening of BP limb, GBP
- VSG -> GERD, GBP, Weight/DM, DS
- GBP -> GBP
JIB – Jejunoileal Bypass
VBG – Vertical Banded Gastroplasty
BPD – Biliary Pancreatic Diversion
AGB – Adjustable Gastric Band
VSG – Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy
GBP – Gastric Bypass
DS – Duodenal Switch
Mexico Bariatric Center surgical teams are equipped and experienced to rescue failed surgeries, such as gastric band revision.
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Learn more about weight-loss surgery options in Canada